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LOVE SPORTS

他人と協力的な関係を築き上げるにはどうすればいいのか?【社会心理学】

Text:亀田達也

コンピュータで明らかになった戦略

囚人のジレンマゲームでは、対戦を何度も続けると協力的な関係が出てくると言われています。この関係について、コンピュータを使って実証したのが、国際政治学者のアクセルロッドです。彼は、ゲーム理論の専門家たちに呼びかけ、囚人のジレンマを用いたゲームの戦略プログラムを募集しました。「コンピュータ・トーナメント」と呼ばれるこの対戦では、14人の専門家が作成したプログラムに、協力と裏切りがランダムに50%ずつ出てくるプログラムを加え、200回繰り返す総当たり戦を行いました。

プログラムには、相手の戦略を見抜いた上で自分の戦略を決めるというような、高度で複雑なものも含まれていました。しかし、結果的に一番高い成績を出したのは、「応報戦略」という最も単純なプログラムでした。

応報戦略とは、最初の回は協力し、その後は、相手が取った手と同じ手を自分も取るという戦略です。この結果は大きな反響を呼び、2回目には63ものプログラムが集まりました。それらを戦わせたところ、やはり最も高い成績を収めたのは応報戦略だったのです。

アクセルロッドは、応報戦略の4つの特徴を挙げています。ひとつ目は自分からは相手を裏切らない「上品」な戦略であること。ふたつ目は相手の裏切りに即座に対応すること。3つ目は相手の協力にも即座に対応すること。最後は、意図が相手にわかりやすいことです。古くから伝えられる、「目には目を、歯には歯を」という言葉も、この応報戦略を表しているといえそうです。

出典:『眠れなくなるほど面白い 図解 社会心理学』 監修:亀田達也

『図解 社会心理学』はこんな人におすすめ!

・人間の社会における心理に興味がある!
・集団においてどんな心理学があるのか学びたい
・職場や友人関係をより良いものにする術をしりたい

以上の方には「図解 社会心理学」は大変おすすめな本です。

多数派の意見に同調してしまうのはどうして?

日本人はよく多数派に同調しやすい、そんなイメージがあるかもしれません。しかし、この傾向はどんな人にも当て余る普遍性を持ったものなのです。なぜ私たちは多数派の意見に同調しやすいのでしょうか?この同調について、有名な実験があります。

この実験はカード①に描かれた線と同じ長さのものを、カード②に描かれた3本の線の中から選ぶというもので、実験には8人の学生が参加しました。回答はひとりずつ順番に行いますが、実は参加者のうち7人は〝サクラ〞で、あらかじめどの線を答えるかを指定されていました。

明らかに間違った答えでも多数派に同調してしまう

この実験の目的は、多数が間違った回答をした場合、被験者はそれに同調するかを調べることで、被験者は7人のサクラの回答を聞いたあと、8番目に回答します。実験は線の長さを変えながら複数回行われましたが、問題自体はいずれもひとりで回答したときは正解率99%というごく簡単なものでした

ところが、7人全員が誤った回答をした条件下だと、被験者による誤答率は32%にも上りました。普通なら間違えようのない問題でも、全員が別の回答を選ぶと、それに大きく影響されてしまうことが明らかとなったわけです。なお、7人のサクラのうち、必ず正解を答える他者がひとりいた場合、被験者の誤答率は5・5%まで低下しました。

会社の会議などでも全員一致の意見に反対するのは勇気がいりますが、ひとりでも反対者がいれば意見を表明しやすくなります。同調を促うながすには全員一致であることが重要で、ひとりでも自分と同じ意見の人がいると、その圧力は大きく弱まるというわけです。

あなたの好奇心をくすぐる面白い知識が満載です

只今紹介した「同調」だけでなく、本書では社会心理学の様々な知識を紹介しています。その数実に56個です!5つのパートに分けて紹介をしているため、気になるパートから読むことが可能です。

シリーズ累計250万部は伊達じゃない!豊富に使われた図解の圧倒的わかりやすさ

「図解 社会心理学」と銘打っているだけあって、図解がふんだんに使われています。

右ページに文章、左ページに図解で解説という形で全頁が構成。

さくっと読めてしまうのに、しっかりとした専門家の知識を身につけることができるのが最大の魅力です!

この「眠れなくなるほど面白い図解シリーズ」は250万部を突破している大ヒットシリーズです。

あなた日々の生活を豊かにする心理学の知識をあなたに!

日々の生活で私たちと密接にかかわっている「社会心理学」。この分野を学ぶことで、日々の生活がより豊かに、興味深いものに変わるはずです。

ぜひ『眠れなくなるほど面白い 図解 社会心理学』をご一読ください!

【書誌情報】
『眠れなくなるほど面白い 図解 社会心理学』
監修:亀田達也

「社会心理学」は、心理学の中でも重要かつ人気のジャンル。個人同士の協力、競争、攻撃、援助など「他者との関係」、そして集団、組織など個人を取り巻く「社会との関係」をテーマとする「社会心理学」を、わかりやすく、かつ堅苦しくならないように図解・イラストを用いて紹介する。「社会現象と心理学」、「職場における心理学」「社会の在り方と心理学」など、現代日本において興味深く読めるような身近なテーマを立てて、さらにこれまで行われた心理実験と結果など、「心理学」全般の内容を誌面に取り入れて解説する。会社、学校、家庭、友人ーー集団や社会の中の個や対人関係の本質、行動原理を社会心理学から読み解く1冊!

芝山ゴルフ倶楽部 視察プレーのご案内